Appreciation of the internal dynamics of China is essential for Europe to develop a more accurate understanding of EU—China relations. Mõned ajakirjad rakendavad elektroonilistele täistekstidele aastast ligipääsupiirangut. Üheskoos jõuame ka kõige hulljulgemate eesmärkideni. Muutused võivad tunduda heidutavad.

  • Teadusartiklid Fookuse peateema sisu Sulgudes märgitud andmebaas tähendab, et artikli täistekst on elektrooniliselt kättesaadav.
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To which extent does this case illustrate a normative conflict between trade and the environment? It finds that, in this case, the familiar competition between divergent European industrial interests was made worse by an important normative cleavage amongst European decision-makers, regarding the appropriate way to achieve global climate change policy goals.

Simply applying the law did not settle the dispute. Instead, it plastered a political compromise emerged from a shift in the political narrative of the dispute, from emphasizing competition to emphasizing interdependence, pushing the Commission into a political compromise with China. Springer open access Hooijmaaijers, Bas.

This article explores and explains the drivers of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. In order to do so a qualitative assessment was made of how well the various hypotheses flowing from three candidate theories neorealism, institutionalism and the bureaucratic politics model BPM fit this policy initiative.

It specifically tests them across three distinct stages of the policy cycle, including issue identification, decision-making and policy implementation. Cutting the dependent variable into policy stages allows us to see if the independent variables truly are powerful.

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This study demonstrates that institutionalism contributes to a better understanding of every distinct stage of the policy process regarding the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. Aspects of neorealism illuminate some stages of the policy process as well, while BPM is only applicable to a limited degree.

This paper applies a gravity model to assess the factors underlying trade between the European Union and China separately for the exports and imports from to The two models are estimated for the 28 European Union countries.

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A panel data analysis aims to capture the effect of time on trade flows in view of the dynamic process of economic integration in the EU and the global financial crisis.

The results suggest that the insularity and landlocked nature of several European Union member states are beneficial for bilateral trade flows. The entry of the European countries into the European Union, Fuusilised kaubandusstrateegiad alignment under a common monetary policy in the Eurozone environment, and the subsequent gradual adoption of a common currency have brought a higher degree of interconnectivity between the member states and have also made a positive contribution to European Union—China bilateral trade expansion.

This article investigates EU-China dialogue on regional policy, a puzzling exercise in policy transfer because such policy is by its nature inward-oriented and the intricacies of regional development imply uncertainty about its effects in different contexts.

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The article sheds light on the reasons of both sides for engaging in this unlikely policy learning effort and identifies its actors and mechanisms. It also critically assesses this process, stressing its one-way nature and the active role of the EU as a 'policy-sender', in contrast to most policy transfer literature citing demands by the policy-recipient as the predominant reason to engage in such cooperation.

However, it soon became clear that China is not only a partner, but also a serious economic competitor for the EU. This case shows that the European Member States are unable to pull together and to create a unified policy towards China.

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The Chinese and their team of large national companies have been eager to exploit this European weakness. It seems that, certainly in this case, competition has triumphed over cooperation.


Subject to future adjustments of China's BRI strategy, the initiative's potential contribution to the EU requirements for infrastructure development could be significant, even though its modalities in the EU are inevitably different from those in countries that are poorer or have more difficult financial market access. Despite superficial similarities in public discourses, the EU has a profoundly distinct perspective from that of the US on the BRI, and more generally on the rise of China and its growing global influence.

The EU should improve its ability to welcome sensible BRI projects, including through the adoption of greater reform of screening frameworks for foreign direct investment. More generally, the EU should enhance its ability to define policies independent of the US on China and the challenges resulting from China's rise.

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China should also make further efforts to foster a constructive relationship with the EU. Wiley Online Library Tsibulina, Anna. The Chinese economic influence is growing in the world.


There are more and more countries which are getting involved in the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative BRI and the European countries are not an exception. The EU has exclusive competence in trade policy but not in investment field.

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Avaleht Ümberkujundamine. Tulevikuks kindlustamine. Muutused võivad tunduda heidutavad.


Eriti kultuuri, inimeste, protsesside ja tehnoloogiaga seotud muutused. See võib koguni öösiti une viia. Kuid pidage meeles, me teeme seda koos.

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Lööme käed ning kujundame üheskoos teie ettevõtte ümber, maksimeerime teie investeeringud ning aitame teil end tulevikuks kindlustada. Teeme ära!

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Strateegia Fookus23 Meie 3- aasta strateegia nimega Fookus23 on üles ehitatud lihtsusele ja fookuse hoidmisele. Columbus ettevõttena toimib lihtsalt, sujuvalt ja kaasaegselt.

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Loome oma tegevusega igal sammul väärtust nii klientidele, töötajatele kui meid ümbritsevale keskkonnale. Delight, Empower ja Sustain — just need on 3 ingliskeelset märksõna meie Fookus23 strateegia keskmes.

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Mida need märksõnad meie jaoks tähendavad? Delight - Kliendid saavutavad suurepäraseid tulemusi arendades äri koos meiega.

  1. Vaike hilinemise kauplemise susteemi arhitektuur
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Me soovime digiarengu ja innovatsioonipartnerina aidata oma kliendid nende äris edule. Läbi ühise tegevuse loome digiarengu edulugusid, mis inspireerivad ka teisi digipööret ellu kutsuma ja digivõimekust järjepidevalt arendama.