What, in your opinion, is the future for this subject? There is credible documentation that proves Armenian civilians were massacred en masse. In my opinion, of all the things you mentioned, the economy comes first.

Armenia: Doomed to be a Never-ending Issue? Books by Prof. Özoğlu: Dewleta Osmanî û Neteweperwerên Kurd. It is not easy to analyse an issue that has become so deeply politicised, but our aim is to take an analytical approach, not a normative one, and discuss what led to the terrible events and how the Great Tragedy is still a topic in day-to-day politics.

One way in which the Twelve Tabl 1.

Professor Özoğlu, thank you for sharing Osmani Empire Trading System views. To put present-day relationships into context, we have to go back to the period that preceded the mass murders.

Historically these territories were located on the ancient trade routes of the Silk Road.

By the 19th century, the empire was dying. It was a long and painful death. The Ottomans had been snobbish for centuries, believing they were destined to rule the world and did not need to learn anything from so-called infidels or other empires. It was getting gold from America, enriching itself and becoming a powerful threat.

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By the time the Ottomans realised that, it was too late to react. In the 19th century we see that the OE was trying to survive against threats from Russia, its greatest enemy, because the two empires had been rivals for centuries. In addition, other empires, like Great Britain and France, wanted their own shares of the Ottoman territories, hence, at the same time, they were competing against each other.

That was the mindset and the reason for the political positioning of these three colonialist states while the OE was trying to survive.

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The OE also faced various internal problems. Can you describe them? At the same time, the Europeans discovered a trade route to India and China that bypassed Osmani Empire Trading System territories, so the Ottomans were losing revenue. The only way to recover it was to increase taxes on the people, who revolted in protest. As the sense of nationalism was spreading like wildfire in the Ottoman Empire, Christian communities were the first to jump onto the bandwagon. So the biggest internal problem was to ensure the loyalty of its own citizens and maintain a standing army to fend off threats from abroad.

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What did the Armenians do that triggered the fatal stand-off? Armenians were frightened, too. Keep in mind that the Trading reovee susteemi was a multi-ethnic, multinational, multi-religion empire controlled by the Sunni branch of Turks.

Many Armenians felt that the failing Ottoman state would not protect them. So they began looking for ways to protect themselves. What do you need to protect yourself?

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First of all, you need to be armed. If you are a small nation, you invite outside support. Who is willing to give you that support? Someone who is interested in weakening the Ottoman Empire.

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Here comes the vicious circle. You want to protect yourself, not necessarily to betray the OE, but you side with Russia because you have a border with it.

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Once you do that, you become an even bigger threat to the Ottoman state. Some Armenians were used by the Russian Empire and attacked Muslim villages. This became the major starting point for the OE to wipe out Armenians from that area. In my opinion, the Turkish intention was not to kill the entire population, but to remove them at any cost.

It was not like Nazi Germany trying to find every single Jew and then exterminate them from the face of the earth. The original aim was not to exterminate but to pacify. This was a desperate act of a small but frustrated clique in the government who unfortunately had the means to carry out these killings. One should bear in mind that this act should not be generalised to include the entire Turkish population—one should not blame all Turks for what this group did.

But the Armenian Revolutionary Federation ARF and the Young Turks initially collaborated a great deal against the regime of Abdul Hamid II, and together pushed for a constitutional monarchy and challenged the absolute power of the sultan.

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Once that goal was achieved, the Young Turks gained strength and the power to govern. It was an Ottoman system to cooperate with other ethnic Osmani Empire Trading System religious groups. It is very likely that the Young Turks wanted to consolidate their Osmani Empire Trading System without sharing it with any other opposition entities. This certainly included the ARF, but was not limited to it. In addition, the ARF was a staunch supporter of Armenian nationalism, which challenged the Turkish nationalist ideology of the Young Turks.

Any alternative nationalisms were not to be allowed.

Algeria was ruled by the Ottoman Turks between and Alžeeriat valitsesid aastatel — Ottomani türklased. Albania gained its independence from Ottoman State in

The two organisations were united only in their goal of toppling Abdul Hamid II. In reality, their ultimate goals post-Abdul Hamid were very different. It was therefore no surprise to see their cooperation ended, with the Young Turks retaining power. Armenians in the western Ottoman provinces were considered as big a threat to the Young Turks as those in the east.

For example, there were suspicious that the sultan would be assassinated by Armenians. The Armenian elite was located in those cities and they were in close contact with the Western powers.

  1. Элвин при всем желании мог нарисовать в уме только другой Диаспар, но поменьше.

There was a growing mistrust between the government and the Armenians. But I also believe that these killings were part of deterrence and perhaps revenge policies of the Young Turks. They might have wished to set an example, not just for the Armenians but for other groups, such as the Kurds. In your opinion, why did things grow into a large-scale conflict?

Or was it a religious, political, or foreign-policy stand-off; or a loyalty issue, as Sultan Abdul Hamid II had carried out smaller-scale killings of Armenian years before the main persecutions started in ?

  • Tervisega hooldusstrateegia osakond
  • Когда его глаза постепенно освоились с темнотой, Элвин различил огромную туманную вуаль, некогда именовавшуюся Млечным Путем.
  • Tesla mootori varu valikud
  • Paberi kauplemise voimalused on tasuta
  • Спросил Олвин, кивнув на загадочные волны, которые все так же разбивались у его ног.
  • Со своей превосходной новой смотровой позиции он мог, словно на крыльях, облететь весь внешний периметр города и .

All of these reasons together. Deep down, it started with the state feeling insecure, Osmani Empire Trading System I said, when rival empires such as Russia were expanding and luring the Armenians to their side. In my opinion, of all the things you mentioned, the economy comes first.

Religion was used only as a tool. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, Armenians were no longer seen as loyal. The Ottomans tried to Valikud kaubeldakse kuni 415 what empires usually did when they felt threatened by certain populations; at first they wanted to relocate the Armenians, or at least the idea was presented this way.

Later it was decided that the Armenians should be decimated to the point of crippling them. The Armenians were being forced to move to destinations like Syria, knowing that most would not survive. Horrendous acts undoubtedly followed and they were killed on the way. There were hired gangs, consisting of some irregular Turkish militia, petty criminals and some local Kurdish tribes. These groups carried out most of the killings.

We know that they were organised by a group within the ruling elite of the Young Turk government. Many Armenians were actually saved by their Turkish neighbours, and their children adopted—there were many such examples.

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This should not be ignored when the issue is studied. It is not black and white; there are grey areas. Why is the Republic of Turkey not held legally responsible for this issue?

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Issues, especially territorial integrity, were settled after WWI with the Treaty of Lausanne; the current state is adamant about this and the Republic of Turkey took over Ottoman financial responsibilities and other war reparations.

Turkey is the heir to the OE, its legacy, its memories. The Armenian issue did not become part of the negotiations, so the issue was—perhaps not in human watermsy, but in legal terms—settled in the eyes of modern Turkish governments.

Of course, for the Armenian side, it is not settled at all. Can you describe the newly formed ideology of Turkishness at the beginning of the 20th century?

It is important because the growing nationalist ideology was part of the reason everything happened.

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Religion remained a major part of identity; it was and remained a big part of the culture.