Hartikainen Yiddish o f former residents o f Vyborg. One should distinguish between the Slavic component in Yiddish and Russian loans. To give a detailed description of the dialect. IV Some aspects o f Yiddish — Estonian language contacts. The developments within the dialect which took place already in Estonia contacts with coterritorial languages, e.

As it was mentioned above, Estonian Yiddish should be placed in at least two contexts that of NEY dialects and of coterritorial languages in Estonia. Taking this into consideration, we can outline the following problems. Description of the dialect.

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In what aspects does Estonian Yiddish differ from other Yiddish dia­ lects spoken in the Baltic region dialects of Lithuania proper and of Courland? The developments within the dialect which took place already in Estonia contacts with coterritorial languages, e.

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Estonian and Baltic German, Rus­ sian. Mutual influences of Yiddish and coterritorial languages. The realization of general processes undergoing in the Yiddishist world in Eastern Europe between the world wars emerge of Standard Yiddish, emerge 11 o f Yiddish-language school-system, struggle between Yiddishism and He­ braism.


The dynamics o f the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia in 20th c. Having accepted the above-mentioned as points of departure, we try to achieve in our research the following goals: 1. To give a detailed description of the dialect. To consider the contacts between Yiddish and coterritorial languages.

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To describe the changes in sociolinguistic situation. To outline the future developments. Before we turn to our data and methodology, there are several remarks to be made.

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First o f all, we shall pay attention mostly to Yiddish-Estonian and Yiddish-Baltic German contacts, while contacts with Russian are described more generally. This is due to the fact that, in general, Yiddish-Russian contacts are a much FX Nuke Trading System topic which requires a separate research; besides, significant contacts between the two languages took place not in Estonia, but in other parts o f Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union.

One should distinguish between the Slavic component in Yiddish and Russian loans. The latter entered the speech o f Estonian Jews rather as Sovietisms in the form o f momenta! The topic o f Yiddishist and Hebraist struggle is mentioned frequently in the present study and some most illuminating examples o f the conflict are de­ scribed.

However, the more detailed research o f the conflict requires a profound knowledge o f the Yiddishist world between the world wars in all three Baltic States and elsewhere in Eastern Europe especially in Poland. Without such a general context the study o f Yiddishist-Hebraist controversy would inevitably remain fragmentary. Thus, the detailed research of Yiddishist-Hebraist conflict in Estonia is beyond the range o f our study. To our best knowledge, no field work has ever been conducted previously and, therefore, a lot o f valuable data has been lost forever.

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Data and methodology The present research is based on data obtained from recorded interviews of 28 informants 22 females and 6 males. All the informants except two were born in Estonia and have at least one parent born in Estonia.

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The story o f the two informants both females bom abroad is as follows. One was born in Romania where her parents worked temporarily her parents were not born and brought up in Romania and were not speakers of Romanian Yiddish.

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The 12 family moved to Estonia when she was a little child. In the family Russian and German were spoken, and she picked up the kind o f Yiddish spoken by Esto­ nian Jews.

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Her German has also typical phonetic features characteristic of Baltic German. As for the second informant, she was bom in Riga because her family had to stay there for some time.

That are the reasons why we decided to include these informants into our study and consider them as representative o f the indigenous minority and authentic speakers of Estonian Yiddish. The interviews were carried out by the author in Alongside with the interviews the author made her observations during the sessions of Tallinn Yiddish Club Fraint fu n jid iš as well as in the process o f everyday-life commu­ nication with Yiddish-speakers.

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The informants were asked to tell their life story and to describe their experi­ ence as Yiddish-speakers. There was only one case when a Yiddish-speaker from Tallinn refused to be recorded; all others felt enthusiastic about the possibility to speak Yiddish and to make comments on various matters.

It should be emphasized that all the informants are conscious of their multilin­ gualism and, so to speak, have a high degree o f linguistic awareness: they discuss such issues as language policy, Yiddish-Hebrew controversy, protection o f the Estonian language, problems o f linguistic integration o f Russophones and even the language use of former Estonian emigres who have returned to Estonia.

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All interviews were conducted in Yiddish, although sporadic code­ switching did occur. However, FX Nuke Trading System o f the Yiddish Club gave a better opportunity to observe code-switching rather than recorded interviews.

How representative is the group o f informants? In the present situation when Yiddish is a declining language in Estonia one cannot afford the luxury o f choosing the most suitable informants our youngest informant was born in and Strateegiline kaubandus Kriptavara. we tried to record any Yiddish-speaker who agreed to give an interview.

The data obtained in the course of the interviews and observations was analyzed in the light of classical and contemporary descriptions o f Courland Yiddish and NEY dialects M.

WeinreichZ. KalmanovitshJ. MarkJacobsand as well in the light of language contact theory U. It is clear that the present study cannot provide an equally thorough analysis of ail aspects; however, we hope that placing the object o f our research into more than one context Yiddish dialectology, Estonian sociolinguistics, general language contacts theory etc. Structure of the dissertation The dissertation consists o f ten articles in three languages English, Estonian and Yiddishthe summary where the most important conclusions will be presented, the list o f informants and text samples.

Two arti­ cles focus on the contacts with the coterritorial languages Estonian and Baltic German. The community is very active in organising fundraising activities for deserving causes. This means that Dogecoin could get left behind and is why Shibas are leaving Dogecoin to join more advanced platforms like Ethereum. One of Dogecoin strengths is its relaxed and fun-loving community.


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