Is oil a curse for the Middle East region, as quite a few have claimed? Similarly, the regional order will become more consolidated. Most political decisions are made behind closed doors and the public are left in the dark. Religious rhetoric in this regard is indispensable. This type of economy in turn affects the role of the state in the social fabric.
They see the main cause of conflicts in the MENA region and perhaps the terrorist attacks in Europe as deriving from the clash of religions and cultures.
Reguleeritav geniomeeter kipsile Yato YT-70855; 1200 mm
First of all, I strongly believe in human civilisation in its entirety. Of course, this does not necessarily mean there are no variations in civilisation, but we still have to see it holistically.
It is obvious that when you compare Chinese and Estonian cultures, the differences are conspicuous. Yet the cultural borderlands between so-called civilisations are so wide that a huge number of people live in what I would call grey areas and the borders dividing neighbouring cultures are blurred. By the same token, focusing on cultural differences can be misleading. What we have to look into Kauplemissusteemi projekt interactions and the fusion between the cultural variants.
The history of cultures tells us that boundaries between cultures are permeable, and that people keep criss-crossing so-called cultural barriers.
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Some call it encroachment, others acculturation, but I like the concept of cultural osmosis … it is natural and to some extent inevitable.
We are all human beings, we can adopt new variations of cultures and readily make them part of our own identity.
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Is not the world we live in full of examples of people who adapt themselves to different cultures? If it is imperative to talk about clashes, then why do we not talk about intra-civilisational ones?
If we put aside culture and religion as the main reasons for the lack of democracy or human rights, or the cause of authoritarianism, we have to look elsewhere for explanations, especially in the MENA context. We should differentiate between rentier states and allocation states.
By the same token, they CIV 5 Trading System not worry about problems of legitimacy. Rentier states in one form or another are allocation states, as they have natural resources such as oil to provide public goods and services for their citizens without collecting taxes. However, all allocation states are not necessarily rentier states.
In some authoritarian allocation states, such as Egypt, the ruling party or elite runs a command economy controlling the redistribution of public goods.
Allocation states should not be bad by definition—as there are ways to allocate public goods wisely, there may be other forms of allocation state which function in a more democratic framework, like the Scandinavian countries. So we should also look into the way allocation is done. Is it done to increase social inequality and poverty, leading to the frustration of the majority of people? In the eyes of the state, the imperatives of such a security understanding never disappear and are continuously bolstered with new alibis.
To maintain such a state, what you need is a very strong executive branch of government, secured by numerous intelligence agencies geared to keep society under constant surveillance.
Everything is designed to maintain the prerogatives of the ruling minority. Each service is also meant to check on the other so it does not become an alternative focus of power; so every time you establish an intelligence service, you need to create another one. Once you put these factors together, the outcome is of course a non-democracy, authoritarian political structures and regimes.
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This implies that the strong executive sucks in everything that moves as if it were a black hole whose gravity allows nothing to escape. The impact of the Arab uprisings on the region is still transforming them.
What major dynamics have they created in the region so far? The Arab uprisings caused new regional dynamics and led to sea changes across the region.
But in Maarake voimalusi strateegia meantime, following different trajectories in respective countries, the uprisings themselves also changed.
The uprising in Syria that began in March has nothing to do with what we see now. While the people of the Middle East became more aware of their power, the states in turn became more alert as to how to keep troublesome segments of their societies under CIV 5 Trading System.
In Egypt, the state in general and the military in particular became even stronger.
However, with some exceptions, it is surprising to see that, as the French say, the more they changed, the more they remained the 2-paevase RSI kauplemise strateegia. Yes, unfortunately the concept is becoming increasingly relevant to what we have been going through in Turkey for the last two years.
We are in the process of getting a much stronger executive branch. The lack or even absence of the separation of powers reminds one of the other authoritarian states of the Middle East.
We turn out to be part of the same habitus from which authoritarian states take root. In this transformation, which carries extremely dangerous fallout for Turkey, the uprisings created negative externalities for the country. In this regard, as far as the content of our day-to-day political problems is concerned, we are to a large extent Middle Easternised.
Why is that? There used to be a period when European values had greater influence over Turkey.
We see that the crises in the south are of such magnitude that they created their own momentum; it became impossible to control them and they began to control the CIV 5 Trading System involved. The way we deal with [the] Kurdish issue [in Turkey], the new regional dimensions that the Kurdish issue assumed, the rise of ISIL, the proxy war in Syria, the Russian intervention … all of these dramatically changed the frame of reference in which Turkish foreign policy is formulated.
We have to act in accordance with a totally different set of priorities compared to what we had, say, six years ago.
It is now difficult to say what Turkey could have done initially so as not to let the crisis in Syria get out of control. Had Turkey not got involved in the way it did, things would probably be as bad as what we have today.
Yet it is obvious that Turkey actively took part in it and bears some sort of responsibility. And now we are asked to pay a heavy price, in all senses of the word. It is understandable that countries in the region are heavily influenced—we can see the effect of the Syrian conflict even in a seemingly distant country like Estonia.
The consequence of the war—the refugee crisis—partly also paved the way for a right-wing populist party to win seats in the parliament.
Reguleeritav külg toestus Yato YT-70850; 840x600x600 mm
In that respect, the Arab uprisings created a whirlpool effect which drew in many countries, not least Turkey; not as much as in neighbouring countries, of course, but look at Germany and the influence of the Syrian crisis on domestic politics there. Turkey has very strong historical connections and common denominators with Syria, Iraq and the rest of the Middle East, so how could we remain indifferent to or aloof from events in the region?
But the problem was related to the way we deal with the issue.